Mushroom agribusiness is one of the most beneficial agri-business you can start with low acquisition and less space. Mushroom farming in India is growing gradually as an alternative basis of income for many people. Worldwide, the US, Netherlands, China, and Italy are the top mushroom producers. In India, Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer of mushrooms, followed by Tripura and Kerala. Mushroom farming is a difficult task for which various machines are essential, like a Rotary Tiller.
This blog will tell you the whole way to develop paddy straw mushroom, oyster mushroom, and button mushroom.
Different Varieties of Mushrooms
There different kinds of mushrooms cultivated around the world. Button mushroom, oyster mushroom, & paddy straw mushrooms are India’s three basic types of mushroom farming. Paddy straw mushrooms can thrive in temperatures ranging from 35 – 40 Degree Celcius. On the other hand, Oyster mushrooms grown in the northern plains, while button mushrooms develop during the winter season. Different strategies and techniques produce all these mushrooms of commercial importance. Mushrooms grown in unique beds, understood as compost beds. For developing these different varieties of Mushrooms, various types of agriculture equipment are required, such as a Super Seeder and others.
How to Raise Button Mushroom
Following are the steps regarding mushroom cultivation. First, check step by step method to grow button mushrooms.
The first step to growing mushrooms is composting in the open. Compost yard for button mushroom farming designed on clean, raised platforms made of concrete. They increased so that the excess water not managed at the heap. Though composting accomplished in the open, they should protect from rainwater. Compost organized is of 2 types – natural & artificial compost. The compost made in trays 100 X 50 X 15 cm.
Mushroom Agriculture Synthetic Compost
The elements for synthetic compost have a wheat straw, bran, urea, calcium ammonium nitrate/ammonium sulphate and gypsum. First, the straw should cut to 8 to 20 cm. in length. Then, it spread equally to form a thin layer on the composting lawn. After this, it washed thoroughly by sprinkling water. The next step is to combine all other ingredients like urea, bran, gypsum, calcium nitrate with the wet straw & bank them into a pile.
Here the ingredients needed are poultry manure, wheat straw gypsum and horse dung. Wheat straw must sliced finely. Horse dung should not combined with that of other creatures. It must be freshly gathered & not disclosed to rain. After the elements connected, they are uniformly distribute on the composting yard. Water poured on the surface to wet the straws. Due to fermentation, the rising temperature rises, and it smells like ammonia running. The rise turned every three days and sprayed with water.
Filling the Compost in Trays
The prepared compost is dark brown. If the compost is dry, then apply a few bubbles of water. If too damp, then let some water disappear. The size of the trays for using the compost could be as per your comfort. But, it must be 15 to 18 cm deep. The trays must supplied with compost to the edge and dropped on the surface.
Spawning is the process of planting the mushroom mycelium into the mattresses. The spawns can accepted from certified national laboratories at a nominal price by scattering the compost on the bed cover in the tray or mixing the grain spawn with compost before filling the trays. The sheet is then sprayed with little water to maintain water & humidity. There must at least 1-meter headspace between the top tray and the top.
Casing soil made by mixing finely crushed and sieved rotten cow dung with the garden soil. Once ready, the container soil has to be sterilized to kill the nematodes, pests, insects & other moulds. Sterilization can done by regaling it with a formal solution or steaming. After the container soil is spread on the compost, the temperature is preserved at 25⁰C for 72 hours & then reduced to 18⁰C. Remember that the casing stage requires a lot of fresh air. Therefore the room must have sufficient ventilation establishments during the case stage.
After 15 to 20 days of the container, the pinheads become noticeable. White-coloured, small-sized buttons start developing within 5 to 6 days of this stage. When the caps set tight on the short stem, mushrooms prepared for harvesting.
Harvesting the cap should turned off gently. For this, you require to hold it gently with the forefingers, press against the soil & then turn it off. Next, the stalk base in which mycelial threads & soil particles cling should chopped off.
Oyster Mushroom Growing
Oyster Mushroom developed where the climatic requirements are inappropriate for the button mushrooms. It is the easiest to grow & most tasty to eat. Being very low in fat range, it is usually recommended for controlling obesity & also for patients who have diabetes and blood stress.
Oyster mushrooms can increase at a moderate temperature that varies from 20 – 300 C and humidity 55-70 per cent for 6 – 8 months in a year. It can also cultivated in the summer season by providing the extra moisture needed for its growth.
Oyster mushrooms can be grown on several agro-wastes having cellulose & lignin. It can also developed using industrial wastes such as paper mill sludges, coffee byproducts, tobacco waste, etc.
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