Science cannot explain everything. There are a few domains that are outside the scope of science. Scientific controversies pertain to those matters in science that are disputed among scientists. But it does not mean that science cannot explain those matters in future. Scientific discovery and progress depend upon the availability of evidence. As new evidence comes to light, outdated explanations are discarded. In any case, there are a few scientific controversies that exist today. Science is unable to explain them currently. This article will tell you about interesting scientific controversies that science cannot explain yet.
What are the ten interesting scientific controversies that science cannot explain yet?
Intelligent Design versus Evolution
The debate between intelligent design and evolution is among the most interesting scientific controversies. Staunch evolutionists follow the ideas conceptualised by Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. Darwin’s theory argues that the origin of life dates to microscopic organisms. These microscopic organisms mutated and evolved into complex organisms. The theory of evolution traces the organs of Homo sapiens to orang-utans and chimpanzees. Evolutionary theory argues that natural selection is responsible for the continuation of species. Survival of the fittest is the basic dictum of evolutionary theory. Species survive if they are strong enough to cope with the challenges posed by nature. Evolutionary theory states that there is no creator, and the universe does not have any intelligent design. It is random and spontaneous.
On the other hand, intelligent design disputes the claims of evolutionary theory. It argues that evolutionary theory cannot logically explain the origins of life and the universe. Intelligent design proponents argue that there are patterns in the universe. These patterns indicate intelligent design, and hence the possibility of a creator cannot be denied. The debate between evolution and intelligent design is quite interesting. Many evolutionary biologists such as Richard Dawkins argue that intelligent design is religion in the garb of science. On the other hand, scientists that support intelligent design criticise the evolutionary theory as illogical.
Climate change is also among the top ten scientific controversies that lacks consensus among scientists. Science has not completely explained why global temperatures are rising and their factors. Some scientists argue that human greenhouse gas emissions are responsible for climate change. Others argue that climate change theories lack scientific consensus.
The basic composition of matter
It is common knowledge that the basic structure of matter consists of atoms. Atoms consist of protons, neutrons and electrons. Quantum mechanics state that protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles known as quarks, but scientists cannot yet explain the fundamental particles that constitute matter. It is among the scientific controversies that baffle scientists. Are there any other particles that constitute matter? Scientists are unable to answer this question yet.
String theory is among the common scientific controversies that lack consensus among scientists. The assumptions of string theory lack experimental evidence, while some are only speculations. For example, the concept of super symmetry and extra dimensions. Even the latest experimental results from the large hadron collider do not indicate any evidence of super symmetry and extra dimensions. These are the two primary concepts that string theorists argue can predict the string theory. But scientists are unable to explain them yet.
Many scientific controversies revolve around quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is a complex phenomenon that is not explainable entirely by scientists. It requires a reformulation of the laws of physics, and the current paradigms cannot resolve this controversy.
The nature of time
The nature of time changes in space, as witnessed in one of the Hollywood movies, Interstellar. It is among the prevalent scientific controversies that stir passionate debates. Why does time flow differently in space? Why does space-time differ? Scientists are unable to explain the nature of time in space yet.
The unpredictable behaviour of solids and liquid
Although solids are liquids are well-understood concepts in science, there exist some scientific controversies. Some materials act like both solid-liquid at the same time. It is difficult to comprehend their behaviour. For example, sand, the sand grain is solid, but when you pass it through a funnel, it flows like water.
Paradigm shifts and post-modernism
The famous book of Thomas Kuhn, “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”, argued that there are paradigm shifts in science. It initiated the scientific controversies and debates on the objectivity of scientific truths. Postmodernists interpret reality as subjective. According to them, meaning and consensus are subjective issues. Paradigm shifts in science depend on cultural context, time, and place. For example, the powerful discourse, the European hegemony over science, defines many things understood as objective. Postmodernists question the Eurocentric assumptions of science, and these controversies stir passionate debates.
Artificial Intelligence and Consciousness
The concept of artificial intelligence is permeating every walk of life in modern times. Companies and businesses are re-structuring their organisations to incorporate Artificial Intelligence technology. But some scientific controversies exist in the domain of AI. The primary issue is regarding the concept of consciousness. Can machines and robots become conscious? How will you incorporate consciousness in robots and machines? These are some scientific controversies that exist in the domain of artificial intelligence.
Simulated realities and common sense
Simulated realities use calculations and prediction models to predict future outcomes. But there are scientific controversies in this domain. It eliminates the possibility of human decision making at the last moment. For example, in the movie Sully, the role of the pilot played by Tom Hanks is an excellent example to understand this. Tom Hank’s common-sense saved the lives of passengers at the last moment. On the other hand, the simulated reality demonstrated that it was a wrong choice and the plane could have crashed. But the crux of the movie is that simulated and mathematical models cannot explain the human side involved in decision making.
Scientific controversies and debates engulf the scientific world. But it does not mean that science cannot explain these controversies in the future. As new evidence comes to light, the explanatory power of science increases. If science cannot resolve some controversies, it does not mean that we should indulge in pseudo-science.
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